High level workflow of PRISMA 4 AFRICA project.

The high-level workflow of the project consists of the following steps:

  • Analysis of the Sentinel-2 time series to identify “deviation from normal” of the vegetation behaviour as depicted by spectral index series and considering the specificity of the cultivar phenology.
  • Application of hybrid approaches or spectral vegetation indices to PRISMA data, for the retrieval of biophysical and biochemical parameters of vegetation (structural and chemical traits) and agricultural soil characteristics (e.g. SOC).
  • Analysis of thermal data if standard products are available. If not, a preliminary step of generation (ET and ESI) will be performed, starting from ECOSTRESS LST.
  • Vegetation stress map generation by merging information derived from PRISMA and ECOSTRESS.

EO Data


The PRISMA satellite, owned by ASI and built by a temporary grouping of enterprises led by OHB Italy and Leonardo, is the first European Earth observation system equipped with an innovative hyperspectral optical sensor, enabling chemical-physical analysis of the Earth from space. The design is based on a pushbroom sensor type observation concept providing hyperspectral imagery at a spatial resolution of 30 m on a swath of 30 km. The spectral resolution is better than 12 nm in a spectral range of 400-2500 nm (VNIR and SWIR regions). In parallel, Pan (Panchromatic) imagery is provided at a spatial resolution of 5 m.

PRISMA Product – © Italian Space Agency (ASI) (2023). All rights reserved. Rupisi (Zimbabwe), 28/04/2023.


Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program EnMAP is a German hyperspectral satellite mission to provide high accuracy hyperspectral image data of the Earth surface on a timely and frequent basis. It records data via a sun-synchronous orbit at a height of 653 km above the Earth. The satellite provides a high resolution hyperspectral imager capable of resolving 230 spectral bands from 420 to 2450 nm with a ground resolution of 30 m x 30 m.


ECOSTRESS is a thermal instrument on the International Space Station that measures the temperature of plants, and uses that to understand plant stress. It was launched to the space station in 2018. Its primary mission is to identify critical thresholds of water use and water stress in plants and to detect the timing, location, and predictive factors leading to plant water uptake decline and/or cessation.